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What are the cause, symptoms and treatment of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that spread through the air, its one of the highest rated diseases that kill millions of people every year. It’s a multisystemic infection disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod-shaped bacterium also known as TB. As per the WHO report 10 million people fell sick with TB every year and 1.8 million died. It’s highly contagious and spread through the air by their lungs.

Cause

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium causes TB.

Mostly its spread through the person who is already infected with TB. Chances of catching TB is really hard as it mimics the symptoms of other diseases. Its unique cell wall helps protect it from the body’s defenses and gives mycobacteria the ability to retain certain dyes like fuchsine (a reddish dye) after an acid rinse that rarely happens with other bacterial, fungal, or parasitic genera.

Symptoms

  • Fever
  • Night Sweats
  • Cough (often chronic)
  • Hemoptysis (coughing up bloody sputum)
  • Decrease or loss of appetite
  • Weight loss and/or muscle loss (unintentional)
  • Fatigue and/or malaise
  • Chest pain (pain while breathing)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Pneumonitis (may be the only symptom in the elderly).

When TB spread thru the bloodstream it could be fatal for body because,

  • Tuberculosis infecting the bones can lead to spinal pain and joint damage
  • Tuberculosis infecting the brain can cause meningitis
  • Tuberculosis infecting the liver and kidneys can weaken their waste filtration functions and lead to blood in the urine
  • Tuberculosis infecting the heart can damage the heart’s ability to pump blood, resulting in a condition called cardiac tamponade that can be fatal

 Diagnosis

To diagnose a patient, the doctor uses their stethoscope to listen swelling in the lymph node. The doctor will ask about any symptoms or live around possible TB infected person do diagnose further ahead.

The most well-known demonstrative test for TB is a skin test where a little infusion of PPD tuberculin, a concentrate of the TB bacterium, is made just underneath within lower arm.

The infusion site ought to be checked following 2-3 days, and, if a hard, red knock has swollen up to a particular size, at that point it is likely that TB is available.

But they are no 100% accurate, fur more accuracy, doctor suggests Blood tests, chest X-rays, and sputum tests to get more clear result.

Treatment

If TB caught in an earlier stage, it could be cured in just two weeks. Depend on patient age, overall health, and potential resistance to drugs.  Also, the location of infection, like kidney or lung can be key factors in treatment.

A person with inactive TB infection just needs one kind of antibiotic for TB but with active infection, patients need a prescription of multiple drugs, antibiotics need to be taken for a time period of around 6 months. They need to take it regularly and be advanced to complete the whole course to get rid of the TB infection.

There is few side effect of TB medication like Dark urine, Fever, Jaundice, Loss of appetite, Nausea, and vomiting. If any of the side effect increases, a person needs to talk with their doctor for further treatment and medication.

 

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